III. Implications/Conclusions

III. Implications/Conclusions

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Statement that uses the peer-reviewed articles as evidence for the hypothesis that if the victim is defending themselves from their assailant, then the effects of trauma will be seen on the bone and that the bone trauma can help identify how the individual was killed (i.e. evidence from the peer-reviewed articles that support the idea that identifying bone trauma can determine the manner of death and/or the cause of death of an individual).


The peer-reviewed articles show research and evidence of how blunt force and sharp force trauma on human bone can help determine how the individual’s skeleton acquired the injury. More research needs to be done to better understand how trauma through soft tissue affects the bone as discussed by Dempsey and Blau (2020). As discussed by Crowder, Rainwater and Fridile (2019) patterns on the bone from sharp force trauma can lead to the object that caused them, similar to how Daisy Wick and Dr. Hodgens observed the abrasions running along the bones and predicted the weapon had many grooves to cause striations on the bones.




Crowder, C., Rainwater, C. W., & Fridile, J. S. (2013). Microscopic analysis of sharp force trauma in bone and cartilage: A validation study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(5), 1119-1126. Retrieved from:

Dempsey, N., & Blau, S. (2020). Evaluating the evidentiary value of the analysis of skeletal trauma in forensic research: A review of research and practice. Forensic Science International, 307, 1-12. Retrieved from:

Obertová, Z., Leipner, A., Messina, C., Vanzulli, A., Fliss, B., Cattaneo, C., & Sconfienza, L. M. (2019). Postmortem imaging of perimortem skeletal trauma. Forensic Science International, 302, 1-11. Retrieved from:

‌Simon L. V., Lopez R. A., & King, K. C. (2020). Blunt Force Trauma. Retrieved from:

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