Imperial Administration in Han China and Imperial Rome
Analyze similarities and differences in techniques of imperial administration in TWO of the following empires: Han China (206 B. C. E. -220 C. E. ) Mauryan/Gupta India (320 B. C. E-550 C. E) Imperial Rome (31 B. CE-476 C. E. ) While imperial administration in Han China from 206 B. C. E to 220 C. E. and Imperial Rome from 31 B. C. E. to 476 C. E. had their similarities like the family roles that the government encourages, living under one ruler who gives the people some control, and the general idea of equalization, they also had their differences.
One of these differences being in how each ruler gave their empire control and where they put themselves according to the rest of their empire. Both Han China and Imperial Rome are controlled under one central leader. Both of these leaders give the citizens some form of control and contribution to their empire. The difference is how they give the citizens power. In Imperial Rome, Augustus keeps the reliable forms of the Republic such as the offices, honors, and privileges of the senatorial class as a base for his new restored Republic now called the Principate.
In keeping the form of the Republic he still gives power to the Senate. In China, Gaozu kept the Qin Empire as his influence to keep choosing district officials to hold some of his power. In addition, Augustus includes himself as an ordinary citizen. What he altered from the Republic to the Principate is the reality of power. He never called himself the emperor or dictator but called himself “princeps” meaning first among equals. Gaozu was called the emperor and didn’t disagree in having ultimate power.
Instead, he equalized the rest of the people and just put himself on top. Both empires believed in generalization of the people, Augustus just took it a step farther by including himself. A major similarity in both Imperial Rome and Han China is the idea of having the leading role of the family the eldest male and the women having no place in political issues. In Later Han, families believed heavily in respect, obedience, and loyalty to the elder male of the family.
In both empires, women stayed home to raise the children and do household chores while the men were soldiers, doing business, and discussing politics. Although women had no role in legal proceedings, they still had a great influence on the male’s decisions. Women gained greater personal protection and economic freedom over a course of years and many influenced and helped shape history. In conclusion, I think the reason that Chinese emperors believed they were of ultimate power was because of the previous dynasties who thought the same thing.
The Han Empire had previous influence from all the Chinese dynasties before it. On the other hand, The Roman Empire was younger and might have seen that other empires weren’t happy with the emperor being the central control. Augustus might have taken this as influence to do something different and decided to include himself in the people. Overall, Imperial Rome and Han China are two very similar empires that have the same general idea of how they wanted their empires to be.
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