Mary Ainsworth Attachment Theory

Ahmad Stevens Charlene Holm General Phycology 1 November 2012 Mary Ainsworth Attachment Theory Mary Ainsworth the psychologists who provide the most detailed analyst research on an individual attachment offering explanations. Like for instants we has adults teenagers know enough how we feel when the person leaves or apart from us and we are able to explain in it words. That does not go so well for young babies such has infants.
In doing so Mary Ainsworth devised an experiment to discover and identify attachment styles. She called the technique used called Strange Situation Classification she also stated that results may vary from between children. The result from the experiment Strange Situation Classification identified security attachment. In order to determine the attachment behavior in children 1 to 2 years of age and also attachment styles.
So Ainsworth Four categories of behaviors are measured and observed: (1) separation anxiety: the unease the infant shows when left by the caregiver, (2) the infant’s willingness to explore, (3) stranger anxiety: the infant’s response to the presence of a stranger, and (4) reunion behavior: the way the caregiver was greeted on return. The observer notes down the behavior displayed and scores the behavior for intensity on a scale 1 to 7. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Mary Ainsworth | Attachment Styles. Retrieved from http://www. simplypsychoAinswPatterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. ogy. org/mary-ainsworth. html Her set of observational studies using the ‘Strange Situation’ paradigm (see above) revealed three distinct forms of attachment (‘attachment styles’). One secure attachment style and two types of insecure attachments. Ainsworth (1970) identified three main attachment styles, secure, avoidant and resistant/ambivalent. She concluded that these attachment styles were the result of early interactions with the mother. A forth attachment style known as disorganized was later identified (Main, & Solomon, 1990). | Secure Attachment| Resistant Attachment| Avoidant Attachment| Separation

Anxiety| Distressed when mother leaves. | Infant shows signs of intense distress when mother leaves. | Infant shows no sign of distress when mother leaves. | Stranger Anxiety| Avoidant of stranger when alone but friendly when mother present. | Infant avoids the stranger – shows fear of stranger. | Infant is okay with the stranger and plays normally when stranger is present. | Reunion behavior| Positive and happy when mother returns. | Child approaches mother but resists contact, may even push her away. | Infant shows little interest when mother returns. | Other| Will use the mother as a safe base to explore their environment. Infant cries more and explores less than the other 2 types. | Mother and stranger are able to comfort infant equally well. | % of infants| 70| 15| 15| Ainsworth, M. D. S. , Blehar, M. C. , Waters, E. , & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth & Bell suggested that behavior in the strange situation classification was determined by the behavior of the primary carer in this case the mother. She identified many attachment behaviors which gives us a detailed report on attachment theory .
Insecure Resistant attached infants are associated with inconsistent primary care. Insecure Avoidant infants are associated with unresponsive primary care. Avoidant children think themselves unworthy and unacceptable, caused by a rejecting primary caregiver(Larose & Bernier, 2001). Resistant children have negative self image and exaggerate their emotional responses as a way to gain attention (Kobak et al. , 1993). Reference Ainsworth, M. D. S. , Blehar, M. C. , Waters, E. , & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. , Blehar, M. C. , Waters, E. , & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Kobak, R. R. , Cole, H. E. , Ferenz-Gillies, R. , Flemming, W. S. , & Gamble, W. (1993). Attachment and emotional regulation during mother-teen problem-solving. A control theory analysis. Child Development, 64, 231-245. Larose, S. , & Bernier, A. (2001). Social support processes: Mediators of attachment state of mind and adjustment in later late adolescence. Attachment and Human Development, 3, 96-120.

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