QuestionQuestion 1. Question :When blood glucose levels are difficult to control in type 2 diabetes some form of insulin may be added to the treatment regimen to control blood glucose and limit complication risks. Which of the following statements is accurate based on research?Premixed insulin analogues are better at lowering HbA1C and have less risk for hypoglycemia.Premixed insulin analogues and the newer premixed insulins are associated with more weight gain than the oral antidiabetic agents.Newer premixed insulins are better at lowering HbA1C and postprandial glucose levels than long-acting insulins.Patients who are not controlled on oral agents and have postprandial hyperglycemia can have neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin added at bedtime.Question 2. Question :Prior to prescribing metformin, the provider should:Draw a serum creatinine to assess renal functionTry the patient on insulinTell the patient to increase iodine intakeHave the patient stop taking any sulfonylurea to avoid dangerous drug interactionsQuestion 3. Question :Insulin preparations are divided into categories based on onset, duration, and intensity of action following subcutaneous injection. Which of the following insulin preparations has the shortest onset and duration of action?LisproGlulisineGlargineDetemirQuestion 4. Question :The drugs recommended for older adults with type 2 diabetes include:Second-generation sulfonylureasMetforminPioglitazoneThird-generation sulfonylureasQuestion 5. Question :Women with an intact uterus should be treated with both estrogen and progestin due to:Increased risk for endometrial cancer if estrogen alone is usedCombination therapy provides the best relief of menopausal vasomotor symptomsReduced risk for colon cancer with combined therapyLower risk of developing blood clots with combined therapyQuestion 6. Question :Bisphosphonate administration education includes:Taking it on a full stomachRequiring sitting erect for at least 30 minutes afterwardDrinking it with orange juiceTaking it with H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors (PPI) to protect the stomachQuestion 7. Question :Long-term use of androgens requires specific laboratory monitoring of:Glucose, calcium, testosterone, and thyroid functionCalcium, testosterone, PSA, and liver functionCalcium, testosterone, PSA, liver function, glucose, and lipidsCBC, testosterone, PSA, and thyroid levelQuestion 8. Question :Patients taking hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy need to take the drug daily at the same time to prevent:NauseaBreakthrough bleedingBreast tendernessPregnancyQuestion 9. Question :The mechanism of action of oral combined contraceptives that prevents pregnancy is:Estrogen prevents the luteinizing hormone surge necessary for ovulation.Progestins thicken cervical mucus and slow tubal motility.Estrogen thins the endometrium making implantation difficult.Progestin suppresses follicle stimulating hormone release.Question 10. Question :When starting a patient with hypothyroidism on thyroid replacement hormones patient education would include:They should feel symptomatic improvement in 1 to 2 weeks.Drug adverse effects such as lethargy and dry skin may occur.It may take 4 to 8 weeks to get to euthyroid symptomatically and by laboratory testing.Because of its short half-life, levothyroxine doses should not be missed.
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