Physical Anthropology

Short Answer
Answer the following 20 questions briefly. You can answer in bullet point form…in other words, you don’t have to use complete sentences/paragraphs/etc. (5 points each)
1. Define hominins…in other words, distinguish them from other primates.
2. Discuss the structural changes that are the result of bipedalism.
3. Describe in detail three theories aiming to explain the adaptive success of bipedal locomotion.
4. How do Paranthropus species differ from Australopithecus? Give an example of each species.
5. Discuss the combinations of anatomical characteristics found in Australopithecus afarensis. What steps did scientists take to determine whether Lucy should be considered a hominin?
6. Describe at least 3 of the “cultural” innovations or behavior of Homo erectus.
7. Briefly define the following morphological skeletal traits: nuchal torus, sagittal crest, and supraorbital torus.
8. What species are each of the following “famous” fossils: the Taung child, the Black Skull, and Lucy?
9. Briefly discuss the history surrounding the taxonomic categorization of Homo habilis versus Homo rudolfensis.
10. Which species are the following stone tool assemblages associated with: Oldowan, Acheulean, Mousterian, and Solutrean?
11. Briefly discuss some of the theories surrounding the fate of the Neandertals. 
12. Define the two different categories of Paleolithic art (mural vs. portable) and give an example of each.
13. Briefly define the Complete Replacement Model vs. the Regional Continuity Model.
14. What “symbolic” behavior is evident in the archeological record and associated with anatomically modern humans in Europe beginning around 35,000 yBP (Upper Paleolithic)?
15. Discuss two methods forensic anthropologists can use to determine identifying traits of an individual when all they have to work with is the skeletal remains.
16. Briefly define two of the methods for determining the age of a child’s skeleton.
17.  Briefly define Wolff’s law and give an example of when it occurs.
18. Define the tissues that make up the human skeletal system.
19. Describe two different traumatic injuries and how they affect the skeleton.
20. Now that the semester is almost over, and you have learned more about physical anthropology, which is the subfield of physical anthropology that you find most interesting?

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