PHI Critical Thinking Webtext Chapter 2 & Chapter 3

1.The article cites sociologist Nancy DiTomasos argument that Discrimination today is less about treating people from other groups badly, and more about giving preferential treatment to people who are part of our in-groups. Provide an example that either supports or refutes this claim.

2. Give an example where a bias in favor of a particular group could result in poor critical thinking.

3. Give an example of a culture you identify with, and of a habit or belief that you have acquired as a result of that culture.

4. Arziel, an American, holds a stereotype that Islamic countries are violent places. Consequently, she turns down the opportunity to go on vacation to a safe part of Indonesia solely because she reads that Indonesia is a primarily Islamic country, and she assumes that she will be attacked if she travels to the country.
A) Explain how Arziels cultural perspective is affecting her critical thinking in this instance.

5. Has anyone ever made an assumption about you based on a stereotype? If so, explain what happened.

6. In what way might a seemingly positive stereotype about a group of people (e.g. African Americans have great rhythm, or Gay men are well-groomed) have a negative consequence?

7. Adichie summarizes the main argument of her talk by stating, The consequence of the single story is this: it robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasizes how we are different rather than how we are similar.
A) Explain what you think she means by this, and describe whether you agree or disagree and why.

8. Adichie gives a number of examples of times when both herself and people she knows have fallen into the trap of seeing a single story for a group of people. Give an example of a time from your life when you have inadvertently stereotyped a group outside your own.

9. Jonahs thinking was affected by a critical thinking barrier, but that doesnt necessarily mean his decision was a poor one. Explain why.

10. Consider your attitude toward the value of getting a college degree and explain what influences from your culture and background you think led you to that belief.

11. Explain what you believe to be the most compelling premise or reason from the ProCon.org website that supports the conclusion that violent video games do contribute to youth violence and why.

12. Explain what you believe to be the most compelling premise or reason from the ProCon.org website that supports the conclusion that violent video games do not contribute to youth violence and why.

13. Imagine the perspective of a serious gamer who uses video games as a way to relax and bond with friends. How might this person view this issue?

14. Imagine the perspective of the parent of a child who is being bullied by another student who regularly plays violent video games. How might this person view this issue?

15. Add to the claim Education is indispensable for advancing your career to turn it into an argument

ARGUMENT FOR QUESTION 16 & 17 (Voters in New Jersey should adopt a constitutional amendment that raises the minimum wage to $8.25 an hour starting on Jan. 1. If it is approved, more than 400,000 people now working at or near minimum wage could benefit…. Business leaders say, as they often do, that such increases would cost jobs. But a recent study by New Jersey Policy Perspective estimated that because the working poor spend virtually every extra dollar they earn, the increase in pay would add $175 million to the economy in 2014, most of it in New Jersey.)4

16. Identify at least one premise from the argument above.

17. Identify the conclusion from the argument above.

18. To what extent do you agree with the logic that when laws are too difficult or expensive to enforce, we should dispense with them? Provide at least one example or counter-example to demonstrate why you feel that way.

19. Many complex societal issues involve numerous competing arguments rather than a single, straightforward, indisputable answer. How does Leslie Stahl summarize the conundrum of the minimum-21 drinking law?

FOR QUESTION 20 (This standardized test of college and career readiness is particularly inappropriate and unreliable because not one teacher was involved in setting the learning goals.)8

20. What is the hidden assumption in the enthymeme above?

FOR QUESTION 21 (Supreme Court justices are government officials whose salaries are paid by the taxpayers, and their records, like those of the president, should be deemed public property and available for review after taking into account reasonable privacy concerns.)

21. What is the hidden assumption in the enthymeme above?

FOR QUESTION 22 Suppose you read a study that stated that 42 percent of all voters in the town of Marble Glen are registered Democrats. Now consider the following argument:

Premise: There are many voters in Marble Glen who are Democrats.

Premise: Fiona lives in Marble Glen.

Conclusion: Therefore, Fiona is probably a Democrat.

22. How strong or weak is this inductive argument? Explain your answer.

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